Lo sviluppo delle fonti energetiche rinnovabili

nelle regioni del Mezzogiorno

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Al 22 gennaio 2012 risultano in esercizio 12.737 MW fotovoltaici, oltre 4.000 MW in più rispetto agli 8.000 inizialmente previsti dal Piano di Azione Nazionale (PAN) sulle Fonti Rinnovabili che indica le strategie per onorare gli impegni che l’Italia ha assunto come membro dell’Unione Europea in merito al pacchetto clima ed energia 20-20-20.

Tuttavia le recenti modifiche del quadro legislativo e regolatorio, che hanno aggiornato gli obiettivi al 2020, fissando a 23.000 MW il target di potenza installata per il fotovoltaico, e cambiato i meccanismi di incentivazione del settore, rendono piuttosto incerto il raggiungimento dei target complessivi indicati nel PAN. Per uno sviluppo delle fonti rinnovabili ordinato ed efficiente è necessario il rispetto di alcuni principi:

  • L’applicazione dell’Autorizzazione Unica Regionale, prevista dalla legge 387/2003, che prevede l’autorizzare con lo stesso provvedimento sia dell’impianto di produzione che delle opere di connessione alla rete elettrica, con l’obiettivo di evitare che si creino congestioni sulla rete con conseguenti limitazioni alla produzione rinnovabile.
  • L’adozione del provvedimento sul burden sharing, che ripartisce fra le singole regioni gli obiettivi del Piano di Azione Nazionale (PAN) in modo da poter permettere alle Regioni di adeguare i rispettivi piani energetici
  • L’attuazione di procedure semplificate da parte delle regioni, come previsto dal Decreto legislativo n. 28 del 2011
  • L’adozione da parte dello Stato di provvedimenti che offrano certezza circa le modalità di incentivazione delle fonti rinnovabili.
  • La possibilità da parte dei gestori di rete di realizzare i necessari sistemi di accumulo, in ottemperanza della legge. Terna ha previsto nel Piano di Sviluppo della rete del 2011 l’installazione di 130 MW di batterie, localizzate nelle provincie di Foggia, Avellino, Salerno e Benevento, che permetteranno di  evitare la modulazione di energia prodotta da fonti rinnovabili per circa 230 GWh/anno e forniranno riserva pronta aggiuntiva per circa 410 GWh/anno. Per questo primo step, a fronte di un investimento di 29 milioni di euro, si avrà un risparmio per il sistema di circa 60 milioni di euro.

Il ruolo delle Regioni nello sviluppo delle fonti rinnovabili

 

Le Regioni rivestono un ruolo importante per raggiungere gli obiettivi indicati dal PAN. L’assenza di un decreto (c.d. Burden Sharing) per la ripartizione fra Regioni degli obiettivi in esso indicati lascia le Regioni senza alcuna riferimento circa gli obiettivi da conseguire attraverso i Piani Energetici Regionali (PEAR), tanto che ognuna ha fissato i propri obiettivi senza alcun coordinamento con le altre. Si rende dunque necessario:

–          aggiornare i PEAR sulla base di linee guida standardizzate e con cadenza almeno biennale

–          predisporre un sistema di controllo e verifica dei risultati che preveda sanzioni per le inadempienze, data anche la natura vincolante dell’obiettivo nazionale fissato dalla Direttiva per le rinnovabili

 

Gli incentivi alle fonti rinnovabili

Complessivamente, a fine gennaio 2012 attraverso il conto energia sono entrati in esercizio circa 327.000 impianti fotovoltaici per una potenza superiore a 12.700 MW e una spesa annuale per gli incentivi di oltre 5,5 miliardi di euro.

Dal 1 gennaio 2013 sarà rimodulato, attraverso un decreto attuativo, il meccanismo di incentivazione per gli impianti di potenza non inferiore a 5 MW, tramite il meccanismo delle aste a ribasso.  Gli impianti fotovoltaici continueranno ad essere incentivati con il meccanismo del conto energia. La legge cd. “Salva Alcoa” ha spinto le installazioni fotovoltaiche fino al raggiungimento di target di molto superiori a quelli indicati nel PAN già nel 2011. Ciò ha comportato la sospensione dei precedenti sistemi di incentivazione in conto energia e l’attivazione di un nuovo meccanismo istituito con Decreto Ministeriale del 5 maggio 2011.

La situazione delle richieste di collegamento degli impianti alla rete elettrica

I gestori di rete hanno ricevuto negli ultimi anni richieste di connessione di molto superiori, non solo ai consumi complessivi del Paese, ma anche agli obiettivi indicati nei Piani Energetici Regionali. Poiché non è ipotizzabile che vengano effettivamente realizzati impianti per potenze così elevate, il rischio è che si verifichi la prenotazioni di capacità di rete da parte di impianti che non verranno mai realizzati.

   Per risolvere questo paradosso, le Delibere dell’Autorità per l’Energia e il Gas 125/10 e 187/11 prevedono una fideiussione obbligatoria a carico del richiedente la connessione in aree critiche di importo proporzionale alla potenza dell’impianto.

Il ruolo della rete di trasmissione nazionale e i sistemi di accumulo

La rete di trasmissione nazionale costituisce uno dei fattori cruciali per lo sviluppo delle Fonti Rinnovabili. Negli ultimi anni è aumentata significativamente la capacità della rete di ricevere e trasmettere l’energia da fonti intermittenti come dimostrano i 6.200 MW, su 6.500 MW complessivi, di produzione eolica connessi alla rete di alta tensione al 30 settembre 2011. Grazie allo sviluppo della rete di Terna e all’applicazione dell’autorizzazione unica regionale, inoltre, si sta verificando una diminuzione consistente della mancata produzione di energia da fonte eolica, passata dai 700 GWh del 2009 ai 470 GWh del 2010.

Le prospettiva di crescita del settore esigono, però, ulteriori interventi; primo fra tutti, in ottemperanza alla legge, l’installazione di sistemi di accumulo, che consentono l’assorbimento di quantitativi maggiori di energia prodotta da fonti intermittenti, con conseguente minore ricorso ad impianti termoelettrici, e migliorano la sicurezza del sistema elettrico.

 

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